Терминологический словарь по логистике

А :: Б :: В :: Г :: Д :: Е :: Ж :: З :: И :: К :: Л :: М :: Н :: О :: П :: Р :: С :: Т :: У :: Ф :: Х :: Ц :: Ч :: Ш :: Э :: Ю :: Я
A :: B :: C :: D :: E :: F :: G :: H :: I :: J :: L :: M :: N :: O :: P :: Q :: R :: S :: T :: U :: V :: W :: Y


An amount or a number of things packed together or a covering wrapper or container of these things to facilitate handling or transport; a small or moderate-sized pack :


To enclose in a package or covering; material (as a covering or stuffing) used to protect packed goods during transport.

packaging bill of material

A list on which all the materials required to pack or cover a product are listed. The process of packaging may be the last stage in an assembly line.

packing list

A document which lists the goods stowed in a package and also their distribution.

packing unit

A package which can hold a certain number of items of a product type and therefore forms a unit. A packing unit is ready for transport as it is and requires no further packaging.


A portable, usually wooden platform for handling and storing materials or packages in warehouses, factories, or vehicles, especially with a fork lift truck. They usually have standard dimensions (e.g. the ISO norm is 1000 mm x 1200 mm, but there are also others like 800 mm x 1200 mm, CEN)

pallet rack

A type of adjustable shelve constructed to support a number of pallet loads.

pallet unit

The number of items of a certain product (also in packing units) which can be stored on a pallet by standard. The term can also refer to a certain number of miscellaneous cargo which can be stowed on a pallet and thus form a unit load.


Term for a ship which has the appropriate dimensions to be able to pass through the Panama canal. It may not exceed 295m in length, a maximum beam overall of 32,25m and a maximum draught of 13,50m.

paperless purchasing

The action of buying and selling something solely via electronic data exchange, i.e. without using written documents.

parallel planning

The action of harmonizing the activities of different departments when these activities have to be finished by the same date.


Any package ready for transport which weighs less than 20 kilos. At cargo terminal operations parcels are handled separately.

part delivery

Only a part of the entire order placed is delivered at the requested date. In case of such a shortage of a certain product ordered by various customers there are two possibilities: either some of the customers receive their entire order on the date of delivery while others receive non, or all customers receive only a part of their supply order on the desired date.

part load

A shipment of less than 1000 kilos in weight, which is generally handled by terminal operations.

partial four-way pallet

A pallet which can be lifted by a fork lift truck from four sides, while a pallet truck can only enter from two sides.

participating carrier

In aircargo: a carrier who participates in a tariff and applies the rules and regulations of that tariff, as well as rates, etc.

parts list

A list of all the components incorporated in an assembled product.


The maximum load container can carry exclusive of its dead weight. The payload also includes cargo securements.

payments against documents

Method to ensure payment of goods ordered on the part of the supplier. The buyer of the goods will only be handed out the documents required to obtain the goods by the bank, if the invoice is paid.


As used in material requirements planning: displaying details on the sources of the gross requirements or allocations for a product.

percent of fill

A method used to determine how effectively the inventory management system can respond to the demand. Percent of fill refers to the percentage of orders which could be filled off the shelf, measured in units or money.

percentage bill of material

A bill of material which lists how many times in per cent each item was ordered. The percentage therefore expresses the probability that a particular item will be ordered by a customer.

performance indicator

A variable which indicates how effectively a machine, a system, a process or only part of either one operates. To obtain comparability the performance is measured against a given norm.


Cargo which can get spoiled if there is a delay in transportation and which therefore loses in value, such as fresh food.

personnel planning

The planning ahead of the number of personnel required to keep a business going, fulfil a task or project for a period of time to come. Personnel planning needs to take into account the number of employees available for the task, their qualifications, illness and vacations and possible changes.

physical distribution

Term used to describe all the activities involved in distributing the goods from the end of conversion to the customer.

pick and pack

Commissioning ordered goods in a warehouse, i.e. taking them out of the stock and packing them ready to be transported to the customer.

pick order

An order consisting of various order positions which are then taken from a stock in the amount desired and either forwarded to the customer or used in a production process.

picking list

A document on which material required in a production process or to be forwarded to a customer is listed. According to the list the material is then taken from a stock.

piggyback transport

Combined rail and road traffic.

pilot plant

A small plant with a limited production capacity used to produce only small quantities of a new product which is then tested on the market and in which production processes are developed or perfected.

pivot weight

In aircargo: minimum weight with which a unit load device (ULD) may be charged.


Detailed formulation of a program of action with a certain objective, in which the constituent parts are arranged to form a detailed program. A plan could be drawn up with regard to: production capacity, the quantities of goods produced per period in relation to activities to be planned (sales, storage), or a timetable could be drawn up with regard to all the activities involved, including the measures to be taken to fulfil the overall objective. In addition to that a plan should include a procedure on how to implement the measures as well as control mechanisms to detect deviations and provide possibilities to check and adjust the objectives where necessary.


A factory or for the manufacture of a particular product or all facilities available for production. While the plant manager is in charge of the production on the spot, the business management is responsible for product management.

platform (container)

A flat container without any superstructure which has the same dimensions as the basal surface of a container of the same series. It is a platform with top and corner fittings. These containers have the type code 60.

platform truck

A lift truck with a load platform which extends over the frame.

Plimsoll mark

A mark indicating up to which limit a ship may be loaded. It is welded on both sides of the ship. Its height depends on the gravity of the water in which the ship is situated.

pocket waggon

A railway waggon which has recessed pockets to be able to accept the road wheels of semi trailers or swap bodies.


General: a common supply or shared use of equipment, workers or money, a readily available supply. In logistics usually used for equipment which was bought by a number of participants and is shared by all of them.


A harbour where ships may take on or discharge cargo and which has the facilities required for this. Also: the left side of a ship (or aircraft) as one faces forward.

port of call

A port where a ship stops (for goods, passengers, supplies or repairs) during a voyage.


A vessel whose dimension exceed 295m in length, 32,25m beam overall or 13,50m maximum draught.

pre-shipment information

Information on the date of forwarding, invoice number and the transport method from a supplier to a customer before the goods are forwarded.

preparation time

General: the time required to prepare an activity, i.e. the time before the activity is actually started. In production preparation time refers to all the activities preparatory for production and the time it takes to prepare the manufacture of an order.

primary location

The preferred storage place for an item.

pro forma invoice

A draft invoice which the exporter draws up for the importer in order to help the latter to obtain importing licences or foreign exchange allocations or open letters of credit. The pro forma invoice is handed out before the goods were shipped and the order confirmed.

process flow production

A production system in which interruptions and queuing time are reduced to a minimum. In the case of queuing time this can be said to have been practically eliminated because the movement of product was integrated into the operation of the resource performing the work.

process planning

In production: planning the order of operations required in a production process. Process planning can also refer to co-ordinating the operations of a production process to be carried out for one or more supply orders (i.e. resources, personnel, time-schedule, etc.).

processing unit

In logistics: the smallest unit of production required for planning, such as a machine or an employee.


In logistics: all the activities concerned with obtaining the material required for production at the desired price, in the required amount and at the right time.

product life cycle

The life cycle of a product from the day it is introduced onto the market until the day it is no longer sold (end phase). Several phases can be distinguished in a product life cycle:

1.) introductory phase;

2.) growth phase;

3.) maturity phase;

4.) saturation phase;

5.) decline phase and

6.) end phase.

product plan

A document drawn up by the department in charge of a product group, which contains a general product description, a factory price and related calculation series as well as the product life cycle (as planned).

product tree

A structure which displays the aggregation levels of a certain range of product types, consisting of the successive aggregation levels. The product tree indicates in which respect an aggregation level consists of one or more groups of products, which in turn are defined at a lower aggregation level. The lowest level consists of the individual products.


The act or process of producing. Production also refers to the number of goods which are to be produced or manufactured over a period of time. It is also applied to services rendered.

production card

In Just-in-Time: a card used to indicate that items are to be produced. If the items were removed from pipeline stock, it could also indicate that these items are to be replaced.

production control

The controlling of the entire manufacturing process, including the flow of goods and materials. Production control involves all activities concerned with production from the procurement of materials to the delivery of the finished products. The aim is to keep in line with the master production schedule. It therefore includes master planning, detail planning, work force planning and progress control.

production plan

A plan drawn up by the sales and operations department of a company, which states the general production output planned. It usually gives the production rate for each product or product family in the coming month, expressed in either units, standard hours, employees or tonnage. The production plan authorizes the master scheduler to draw up a more detailed plan (master production schedule).

production reporting and status control

Feedback mechanism for the production schedule according to which corrective action can be taken. It includes manufacturing order authorization, release, acceptance, operation start, move reporting, scrap and rework reporting, order close-out and costing interface.

project cargo

A number of goods which are connected to the same project, which is usually forwarded at different times and from different locations.

pull system

Ordering system whose ultimate objective is to maintain a fixed stock of items. Every time items are removed from the stock they are replaced immediately (e.g. base stock control, kanban).

purchase and make-to-order

Also called decoupling point-5 (DP-5). A system of production which does not keep any stocks but procures materials or components only if an order was placed.

push system

System of ordering. The orders placed have to be completed by specific due dates, which are based on the lead times estimated.

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