Терминологический словарь по логистике

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A :: B :: C :: D :: E :: F :: G :: H :: I :: J :: L :: M :: N :: O :: P :: Q :: R :: S :: T :: U :: V :: W :: Y

mafi trailer

Brand name of a trailer which is used for roll-on and roll-off operations


Expression comprising all technical and administrative surveyance required to assure that an item is (mostly a machine) maintained in a condition in which it can keep performing its function well.

make or buy

Term used to express the decision-making process of whether to produce a product (or service) oneself or to buy it from other others. There are various factors determining the outcome of this process which have to be weighed against one another, such as efficiency, personal know-how, the availability of the desired product on the market, delivery reliability of potential suppliers and the price. The weighing of such factors will eventually lead to the conclusion whether to make the product oneself or to buy it from other suppliers.


A list on which all items loaded on a means of transport are documented (cargo manifest). Manifests are used for administrative purposes and are compiled by the agents in the ports, based on the Bill of Lading.

manifest invoicing

Invoice to an overseas agent or office which summarizes charges to each shipment on a manifest. The invoice is to be recovered from the consignee.

maritime container

A container which conforms to the standard required for it to be used on a ship, which is usually an ISO standard (International Standards Organization)

marketing research

Term describing the systematic investigation or scrutinizing of a market with regard to its structure and growth potential to obtain data required to make forecasts and the investigation of the efficiency of marketing measures to obtain a market position, as well as cost-benefit analyses of investments made in a marketing-mix and the financial results it has yielded.

mass production

The process of producing a certain item in large amounts. The product is usually manufactured on an assembly line, which splits the production process into stages, thus making it faster and more efficient. Highly specialized machinery and people perform only one part of the process at different stages of the production line.

master air waybill

Document issued by a consolidating agent. On a master air waybill many consignments are grouped together.

master plan

Refers to a strategy agreed upon to pursue a certain aim, also referred to as production plan and production planning.

master planning

Also production planning. The action of planning future activities or production levels to achieve management objectives, using data from all business units (finance, material logistics, personnel, etc.). A master plan defines activities required to fulfil a certain task and also the date at which the single activities have to be completed. In the case of production planning a master plan determines production levels for a period of time in order to set an overall level of production. Material, work force, facilities and finances are then planned accordingly. The master plan usually aims at maintaining production levels stable while trying to increase or lower backlogs or stocks.

material issue

The action of handing out materials or parts / components required in the production process from a central storage point. Quantity and value of the material issued is recorded.

material manager

The person in charge of supervising the issuing of material required for production in a factory and who is held responsible for the functioning of this department by the factory management.

material requirements planning

A planning technique which uses material bills, open order data, stock data and master production schedule (MPS) data to calculate the material required as well as when to order it. Originally, it was therefore mainly used to control and order stocks. Today, however, it is above all a method applied to control and maintain due dates on orders. This is due to the fact that the method not only makes recommendations when to release replenishment orders but also re-plans open orders when due orders are not in schedule. The method itself is a two-step logical operation, which is repeated at each production level and starts with the manufactured product: Future stocks are calculated from the present stock and known future issues. Bills of materials serve to compute lower level requirements.

materials management

Term used to describe the controlling and planning of all the activities involved in materials flow.

memo bill

A document issued for internal and control purposes by an agent in a consortium which states the name of the carrier for whom the original Bill of Lading / Way Bill was issued, the original document number as well as the agent who issued it, the number of items, their weight and measurements, etc. The Memo Bill is not a contract of carriage.


Any person who owns or is entitled to the goods or the Bill of Lading or any person acting as a representative of any of these. It could therefore refer to the holder of the Bill of Lading, the Consignee, etc.

merchant haulage

Term used to describe the inland transport of shipping containers. It is usually organized and paid by either the consignee of goods or the shipper instead of by the ocean carrier.


The expression refers to network planning systems. Beginning and end of the series of activities which are ranked in the relationships diagram.

min-max system

A min-max system describes an order system in which "min" is the point at which to order, while "max" describes the "order-up-to inventory" level.

mixed consignments

In aircargo: different items, goods or commodities which are consigned together. They can be packed together or stowed in separate packages.

mode of transport

Refers to the means of transportation used to transport goods or people, e.g. by air, by rail or by road.

move card

A signal used in Just-in-Time indicating that a certain number of items are to be moved from one point (which is usually the outbound stock) to a point at which they are needed.

moving annual average

Describes the monthly average taken of a successive number of figures in a period of twelve months. Every new month the twelve month period shifts, i.e. the first of the formerly twelve drops out while the new month is included to form twelve again

moving annual total

Figure which expresses the financial or quantitative value of a variable in a period of twelve months. This variable could be turnover, production, demand, etc. Each month the figure for the new month is added to the moving annual total (MAT), while at the same time the figure for the first month out of the formerly twelve is subtracted.

moving average

Describes the weighted average of a number of successive figures. However, the number of figures used to calculate the moving average is aimed at levelling out the effect of seasonal irregularities.

MPS item

A planning item is an item which is planned by the master scheduler in the master production schedule, e.g. a component, a sales product or a production module. Which item is chosen depends on the characteristics of the market, the decoupling point position and the product structure.

multi purpose vessel

A ship which was designed to transport miscellaneous cargo, e.g. container cargo, bulk cargo or general cargo.

multi-level bill of material

A list of all the components involved in an assembly as well as the quantity needed of every one of them. It is multi-level because it also lists all the sub-components, i.e. those which are required in subassemblies and again their components right down to raw materials required.

multimodal transport

Term expressing that at least two different modes of transport are used to transport goods.

multimodal transport document

A document which proves a contract on multimodal transport, stating the transport operator and his delivery of the goods in agreement with the terms of the contract.

multimodal transport operator carrier

The person responsible for the transport of goods in a multimodal manner in accordance with the terms of the contract of carriage. The person on whose behalf the multimodal transport document is issued.

multiple sourcing

Working with more than two suppliers for a product, whereby all suppliers are equally good.

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