Терминологический словарь по логистике

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dangerous goods declaration

A document in which the consignor states which type of dangerous cargo a shipment contains and declares that these goods have been packed and labelled according to the rules and regulations applying to the transport of dangerous goods.

declaration of origin

A declaration where goods of a shipment originate, made by the manufacturer, exporter or supplier on documents relating to the goods, such as the invoice.

deep tank

In shipping: a tank designed and equipped to carry liquids in bulk (such as oil or vegetable oil). There can be several deep tanks on a vessel, allowing the transport of different types of oil / liquid in one shipment. They can also be equipped with a heating, thus maintaining the oil transport at the appropriate temperature.

delivered duty unpaid (DDU) (...named port of destination)

An incoterm used irrespective of the mode of transport, according to which a seller is required to deliver the goods at the agreed place in the country of importation. It involves the seller`s obligation to bear the costs and risks involved in delivering goods to their destination, including customs formalities and their related costs and risks. However, if the carrying out of customs formalities is to be included, this has to be explicitly mentioned in the wording of the incoterm. Duties, taxes and other charges to be paid upon importation are not included in the sellers obligation under this incoterm. The importer, on the other hand, is responsible for the clearance of the goods and has to bear any additional costs and risks which arise upon importation. If the parties agreed upon including some of these importation costs in the sellers obligation, this should also be made explicit in the wording, e.g. by adding "delivered duty unpaid, VAT pad".

delivered ex quay (DEQ) (duty paid) (...named port of destination)

An incoterm to be used only for sea or inland waterway transport, according to which a seller is required to deliver the goods at the wharf of the port of destination. All costs and risks involved in delivering the goods there are charged to the seller (i.e. duties, taxes, etc. are included). If, however, buyer and seller have agreed that the buyer is to pay the duty, the wording of the incoterm should be modified to "duty unpaid". Furthermore, if only some of the costs due upon importation are not to be included in the seller`s obligations, this should also be made explicit by the wording of the incoterm. If, for example, the payment of value added tax is to be excluded, the wording should be modified to "delivered ex quay, VAT not paid" (...named port of destination).

delivered ex ship (DES) (...named port of destination)

An incoterm to be used only for sea or inland waterway transport, according to which a seller is required to deliver the goods on board the ship at the port of destination, without having to clear them for import. The seller bears costs and risks only for bringing the goods to the port of destination.

delivering carrier

In aircargo: the carrier in charge of delivering the goods to the consignee awaiting them at their destination.

delivery date

1. The date at which goods are due to be transported to a customer, or 2. the date at which the goods must be ready to be transported to the customer, or 3. the date at which the goods must be delivered to and received by the customer.

delivery lead time

The time it takes for an order to be filled, from the moment the order is placed to the delivery of the product to the customer.

delivery order

A document according to which the import cargo named on it is authorized to be released. It is issued by or on behalf of the carrier. In aircargo delivery order refers to the authorization of the party entitled to a shipment to a party which is not shown on the Air Waybill by the consignee.

delivery receipt

A document signed by the consignee which states that the carrier is entitled to receive the payment of the transportation costs due to him having performed his duty as agreed upon in the bill of lading.

delivery schedule

A timetable drawn up to determine the delivery date or dates for goods which were purchased for a time in the future.

delivery service

A term used to describe all the services rendered to a customer, from the placement of the order until the delivery of the product (such as delivery lead time, communication, availability of the product). In aircargo the term refers to the service of delivering goods which have arrived at the airport of destination from the airport to the consignees premises, his agent or the custom department agency, if so required.

delivery status

Term used to express how many deliveries are still pending for an order to be completed.

delivery time

From the point of view of the supplier: the time from the moment an order is placed until the goods are forwarded, including such activities as order processing, production lead times and preparing the order to be forwarded. From the point of view of the customer delivery time also includes ordering, transport times and times required for the inspection of the shipment upon arrival.

demand management

Term used to describe all activities involved in recognizing and managing demands for a product and transforming it into useful information for the master scheduler. These activities involve forecasting, requirements management, order entry, etc.

demise charter

The leasing of a ship by a charterer for a certain period of time from its actual owner, whereby the charterer is responsible for the ship, and thus pays operation and maintenance costs. The original crew stays on board the ship and becomes servants of the charterer. If the charterer also brings his own crew this type of chartering is referred to as "bareboat charter".

detailed scheduling

Also called operations scheduling. The planning of a manufacturing order with regard to dates by which certain tasks of the production process have to be performed, used in dispatching operation or shop floor control.

direct delivery

Term used to describe the delivery of goods directly from seller to customer. It can also refer to goods which are unloaded from a vessel and directly loaded onto other means of transport in order to be delivered to the customer and without being stored anywhere in the port. This is usually done when there is not enough storage capacity or adequate storage facilities for certain types of cargo.

direct load

A shipment which is delivered to the customer directly and does not pass through terminal operations.

direct shipment

Term used to describe a shipment which is delivered directly to the consignee after having been picked up from the forwarder by the carrier.

direct supply

A mode of supplying in which products are passed on directly from a producer to user, without intermediaries (i.e. wholesaler or retailer).


To unload cargo from a means of transport or the landing of cargo.


The act or process of distributing cargo to its various destinations.

distribution centre

A location from to which goods are delivered, at which they are stored and from which they are transported to other destinations again; a warehouse.

distribution channel

The manner, means and ways in which a company distributes goods.

distribution costs

The costs arising from the distribution of goods.

distribution modelling

To produce a representation or simulation to model and analyse the process of the physical distribution of goods with the aim of optimizing it.

distribution network structure

A network structure which is at the basis of the physical distribution of goods from one or more sources to warehouses or other distribution centres.

distribution planning

The action of the establishment of goals, procedures and channels for the distribution of goods, taking into account restrictions which may apply.

distribution process

A term referring to all the activities which ensue after the product to be distributed has become available.

distribution requirements planning (DRP-I)

Determines at which point inventories at branch warehouses have to be replenished. One way to determine the point at which replenishment is needed is to explode planned orders at branch warehouses via MRP logic, which then become gross requirements on the supplying source.

distribution resource planning (DRP-I)

Planning the material requirements of the key resources contained in a distribution system.

distribution warehouse

A storage place for finished products. In a distribution warehouse customer orders are picked and made ready for transport.


A company which markets one or several commodities; especially a wholesaler selling mainly to retailers, other merchants, industrial users, etc., chiefly for resale or business use.

dock receipts

In shipping: a document in which a carrier states that goods to be shipped are received.

double stack waggon

A railway waggon which was designed in such a way that two containers can be stacked on top of one another.

down time

In logistics: time during which production is stopped especially when setting-up for an operation or when repairs have to be made.


The depth of water a ship draws especially when it is loaded, measured as the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel. A ship`s draft marks are welded at the sides near stem, stern and amidships.

drop shipments

Term used to describe shipments which are "dropped off" at different ports and for different consignees on a ship`s way to its final destination.

dry bulk container

Containers which were designed to carry cargo of dry solids in bulk which are not packaged. These containers are equipped with a structure which is secured in a framework in order to carry the cargo. Dry bulk containers have the type codes 80 and 81.

dry cargo container

A container designed to transport solid goods, i.e. no liquids.

dual sourcing

Obtaining a product from two suppliers.

duty free zone

Zone in which goods can be stored with no customs duties falling due.

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