Терминологический словарь по логистике

А :: Б :: В :: Г :: Д :: Е :: Ж :: З :: И :: К :: Л :: М :: Н :: О :: П :: Р :: С :: Т :: У :: Ф :: Х :: Ц :: Ч :: Ш :: Э :: Ю :: Я
A :: B :: C :: D :: E :: F :: G :: H :: I :: J :: L :: M :: N :: O :: P :: Q :: R :: S :: T :: U :: V :: W :: Y


A product which in terms of an ABC classification is part of a major group of products representing only a small portion of the total sales value and / or production value or consumption value. Least concern is given to this category with regard to stock control and planning.


1. Domestic port to port transport of goods. 2. Transport of goods in one country by a vehicle registered in a different country. 3. Carriage of a container between a storage area and an area designated by the owner of the container. The operator may use the container in exchange and during the transfer.


1. (General) The overall volume of workload available. See also: load. 2. The capapility (rated per unit of time) of a resource, an organizational unit, a production, transport or similar facility or an employee to work under normal conditions over a specified time span.

capacity load (load)

The quantity of capacity of a facility (machine, warehouse, waggon etc.) that is used in a given period (production, storage, transport, etc).

capacity simulation

A technique for estimating the capacity required to fulfill the production program prior to its execution. Usually simulation is limited to key or critical operations.

cargo declaration

Generic term, sometimes called freight declaration, referring to the documents containing the particulars demanded by the customs with respect to the cargo (freight) transported by commercial transportation means.

cargo handling

All procedures involved to enable the handling of goods.

cargo manifest (freight manifest)

A list showing in detail all items of cargo carried on a given flight, vessel or vehicle.

carriage and insurance paid to (... named place of destination) (CIP)

The incoterm posing the seller under the same obligations as by carriage paid to (CPT) adding the obligation for the seller to procure cargo insurance in order to indemnify the buyer against the risk of damage to or loss of the goods during transport. The buyer should be aware that the seller is only obliged to obtain insurance for the minimum coverage under this term. This term requires that the seller clears the cargo for export. Note: This term is used for any transportation mode including multimodal transport.

carrier haulage

The inland transport service offered by the carrier observing the terms and conditions stipulated by the tariff and by the relevant transport document.

cash against documents (CAD)

Terms of payment stipulating that the buyer of the goods pays cash for the goods against the transfer of the documents, which entitles him to take possession of the goods.

cash on delivery (in aircargo) (COD)

Terms of payment: entitling the carrier to collect payment from the party receiving the goods (consignee) and obliges him to remit the collected amount to the shipper.

certificate of origin

A document, certifying the country of production of goods. Normally used by customs in order to ascertain the tariff for duties under preferential programmes or to permit or deny import in connection with import restrictions from specific sources.

certificate of shipment

A document certifying that the goods have been shipped in agreement with the terms of the contract of sale.

classification yard

A railroad terminal area used to group together rail cars to form train units

clean on board

When documents issued in respect of goods loaded on board indicate that these goods are clean (without damage or shortage).

cleared without examination (CWE)

Cleared without customs’ inspection.


An organisation established to process and collect documents for a group of motor carriers.

closed vented/ventilated container

Container similar to the general purpose container of a closed type but allowing ventilation (air exchange between the interior and the outside atmosphere).

CMR note

A document used for on the road carriage of goods. Like the airwaybill it proves the contract of carriage. It is a receipt for the consignment, and indicates the relevant rules as well as regulations for road transport.

combined transport

Intermodal transport where the longest part of the European route is by inland waterways, seas, or rail, and any leg carried out by road is as short as possible.

combined transport bill of lading (bill of lading R 302)

A modern document used either for combined transport or for port to port transportation depending whether the relevant blanks for place of delivery or receipt are filled in on the face of the relevant document.

combined transport operator (CTO)

A party that offers the service to carry shipments with different means of transport.

commercial invoice

Document demanding payment for goods supplied in accordance with conditions agreed upon between seller and buyer.


1. Any goods or article of commerce shipped. 2. Indication of the nature of goods.

computer aided manufacturing (CAM)

A manufacturing process mainly controlled by a computer system.

computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

The concept of a fully automated factory in which nearly all manufacturing processes are fully integrated and controlled by computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) and automated logistic system.

confirmation lead time

The period of time from the moment when an order is placed with a supplier and the time the order confirmation has been received by the supplier.

confirmation of despatch

A note to indicate that a shipment has been transferred to a vehicle, vessel or aircraft, and verifying that transportation to destination has commenced.


Such party as mentioned in the shipping document to whom the commodity, cargo or containers are destined.

consignee information

data about the party goods are shipped to, including: company name, address, city with postal code, country, individual name,

consignee manifest

A manifest prepared in the sequence of deliveries to consignees. It is mainly used to answer inquiries regarding the whereabouts of shipments.


A separately identifiable number of goods (ready and available to be) carried from one consignor (sender) to one consignee (receiver) via one or more modes of transport, listed and specified in one transport document only.

consignment instructions

Instructions on the shipping document from either the seller / shipper / consignor or the buyer / his agent / consignee to the resp. carrier or his agent, freight forwarder, or any other provider of a transport service, enabling the carriage of goods and connected activities. The following associated functions can be covered: - Movement, treatment and handling of goods (transportation, forwarding and stowage). - Preparation of customs formalities. - Allocation and execution of documents (freight and handling charges for the connected services). - Special instructions (dangerous goods, insurance, additional documents required, goods release).

consumer goods

The goods destined to be used for households as ultimate consumer.


A sturdy box to carry cargo, strenghtened and stackable and suitable for horizontal or vertical transfer.

container freight station (CFS)

A depot at which (in export) a quantity less then container load (LCL) of cargo is received from sellers for loading into containers, or where (import) LCL cargo is discharged from containers and then delivered to merchants.

container logistics

The monitoring and positioning of containers in vessels and storing areas and / or other equipment.

container manifest / unit packing list

Document detailing the contents of an particular freight container or another transport unit, to be prepared by the party in charge of its loading into container or unit.

container pool

A certain stock of transport boxes, normally containers, jointly used by several carriers and / or leasing companies using containers

container size / type

Specification concerning size and type of freight container similar to a unit load device as described in "ISO 6346 freight containers - Coding, identification and marking".

container terminal (container yard)

Place of receipt (acceptance), storage and delivery of both, loaded and / or empty containers to be loaded or discharged into resp. from a transport medium.


Designation indicating that goods have been stuffed in a container.

counterbalanced lift truck

Lift truck fitted with forks at the front (other devices can be mounted instead) on which the load, palletized or not, is tipped over towards the body of the truck and balanced by the counter-mass of the truck.

country of departure

A country from which a vessel, airplane or other means of transport has departed or is scheduled to depart.

country of destination

The country to which a shipment is (to be) shipped as (ultimate) country for delivery, also used for countries to which persons (are scheduled to) travel.

country of dispatch / country of provenance / country whence consigned

The country from which shipments are originally (to be) dispatched destined to the importing country not undergoing any commercial transaction performed in the intermediate countries.

cross trades (in shipping)

Term used if a vessel serves between other countries than the country of its registry.

customer service

A service established to provide a dependable link between the time a quotation is requested and the time the goods are received having the objective of continuing customer satisfaction on a long-term basis.

customized flow production

A method of organising a production unit in order to produce customized products in different options without unwanted intermediate stocks thus acquiring many advantages of line production.


The department of the (in most countries) financial ministry that deals with levying of duties and import / export taxes on goods from or to foreign countries and the monitoring and control over export / import of goods, i.e., among others, allowed quota, prohibited goods.

customs broker

An agent or broker specialized in the handling of inbound customs clearance.

customs clearance

The act of receiving customs’ permission to import or export goods after satisfying customs requirements by presenting for physical control, and providing information or certification with regards to the goods to be im- or exported.

customs clearance agent

A customs broker serving the consignee by providing customs clearance services.

customs goods classification

The classification of goods in accordance with the relevant customs nomenclature.

customs invoice

Document required by customs of an importing country stating the invoice or other relevant price (e.g. retail price, price of identical products), and details of costs for freight, insurance, handling and packing, etc.. Terms of delivery and payment are normally also required to enable customs to determine the customs value for the goods which are to be consigned to that country.

customs value

The value of a product or a group of products expressed in monetary terms, within a consignment presented to Customs for the assessment of duty and for statistical reasons.

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